A critical note on meal criteria in pigs: Which behaviours do they perform during feeder visit intervals? (2024)

Abstract

The feeding behaviour of pigs can be continuously recorded using sensors, providing promising avenues for automatic monitoring of pig performance and welfare. To utilise this potential, however, the data must be cleaned and aggregated meaningfully. A common aggregation is from visits into meals, in which visits separated by intervals shorter than a meal criterion (s or min) are merged. Methods to determine the criterion and the criteria themselves vary widely between studies, and have been applied indiscriminately or only when no pen mates visited the feeder during the interval. Aggregation choices should be biologically relevant, but there is no empirical knowledge on how pigs behave during these intervals or how the intervals are influenced by feeder competition. This study had three aims: 1) test the method that classifies intervals using a three-part probability density function (short, intermediate and long intervals); 2) determine whether feeder competition differed between interval types and application methods; and 3) describe and compare the behaviours of pigs between intervals. Visit intervals were obtained from 110 barrows in ten pens with one IVOG electronic feeding station each. A three-part probability density function was fitted to the log-transformed intervals, and its fit was assessed visually. For each pig, a short and an intermediate interval were selected for behavioural observations from camera. We found that pigs had relatively more intermediate intervals (1–28 min) than cows and that the fit of the three-part function was suboptimal. Nevertheless, identified meal criteria were in similar ranges as for other species. Intermediate intervals were more often initiated by displacements than short intervals (≤1 min), and there was more aggression and less pen exploration if pen mates visited the feeder during these intervals. Short intervals reflected interruptions in feeding behaviour, shown by standing (e.g. vigilance/chewing outside the feeder) and pen exploration (e.g. rooting, searching for pellets), while intermediate intervals contained non-feeding behaviours, such as social nosing, drinking and, predominantly, lying inactive. We conclude that intermediate intervals indicated completed feeding bouts, while short intervals reflected continued feeding-focused behaviours. Therefore, only visits separated by short intervals should be merged into meals. The exact criterion depends on the dataset but may, considering the suboptimal fit of the function, be more precisely determined using other methods. Whether visits should be merged indiscriminately or only when no pen mates entered the EFS during the interval depends on whether competition effects are of interest in the study.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106219
JournalApplied Animal Behaviour Science
Volume273
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2024

Keywords

  • Fattening pigs
  • Feeder competition
  • Feeding behaviour
  • Feeding patterns
  • Precision livestock farming (PLF)
  • Sensor data processing

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Bus, J. D., Boumans, I. J. M. M., Webb, L. E. (2024). A critical note on meal criteria in pigs: Which behaviours do they perform during feeder visit intervals? Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 273, Article 106219. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2024.106219

Bus, Jacinta D. ; Boumans, Iris J.M.M. ; Webb, Laura E. et al. / A critical note on meal criteria in pigs : Which behaviours do they perform during feeder visit intervals?. In: Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 2024 ; Vol. 273.

@article{30428068564b4adca8dc65d52b63b5a0,

title = "A critical note on meal criteria in pigs: Which behaviours do they perform during feeder visit intervals?",

abstract = "The feeding behaviour of pigs can be continuously recorded using sensors, providing promising avenues for automatic monitoring of pig performance and welfare. To utilise this potential, however, the data must be cleaned and aggregated meaningfully. A common aggregation is from visits into meals, in which visits separated by intervals shorter than a meal criterion (s or min) are merged. Methods to determine the criterion and the criteria themselves vary widely between studies, and have been applied indiscriminately or only when no pen mates visited the feeder during the interval. Aggregation choices should be biologically relevant, but there is no empirical knowledge on how pigs behave during these intervals or how the intervals are influenced by feeder competition. This study had three aims: 1) test the method that classifies intervals using a three-part probability density function (short, intermediate and long intervals); 2) determine whether feeder competition differed between interval types and application methods; and 3) describe and compare the behaviours of pigs between intervals. Visit intervals were obtained from 110 barrows in ten pens with one IVOGⓇ electronic feeding station each. A three-part probability density function was fitted to the log-transformed intervals, and its fit was assessed visually. For each pig, a short and an intermediate interval were selected for behavioural observations from camera. We found that pigs had relatively more intermediate intervals (1–28 min) than cows and that the fit of the three-part function was suboptimal. Nevertheless, identified meal criteria were in similar ranges as for other species. Intermediate intervals were more often initiated by displacements than short intervals (≤1 min), and there was more aggression and less pen exploration if pen mates visited the feeder during these intervals. Short intervals reflected interruptions in feeding behaviour, shown by standing (e.g. vigilance/chewing outside the feeder) and pen exploration (e.g. rooting, searching for pellets), while intermediate intervals contained non-feeding behaviours, such as social nosing, drinking and, predominantly, lying inactive. We conclude that intermediate intervals indicated completed feeding bouts, while short intervals reflected continued feeding-focused behaviours. Therefore, only visits separated by short intervals should be merged into meals. The exact criterion depends on the dataset but may, considering the suboptimal fit of the function, be more precisely determined using other methods. Whether visits should be merged indiscriminately or only when no pen mates entered the EFS during the interval depends on whether competition effects are of interest in the study.",

keywords = "Fattening pigs, Feeder competition, Feeding behaviour, Feeding patterns, Precision livestock farming (PLF), Sensor data processing",

author = "Bus, {Jacinta D.} and Boumans, {Iris J.M.M.} and Webb, {Laura E.} and Bokkers, {Eddie A.M.}",

year = "2024",

month = apr,

doi = "10.1016/j.applanim.2024.106219",

language = "English",

volume = "273",

journal = "Applied Animal Behaviour Science",

issn = "0168-1591",

publisher = "Elsevier",

}

Bus, JD, Boumans, IJMM, Webb, LE 2024, 'A critical note on meal criteria in pigs: Which behaviours do they perform during feeder visit intervals?', Applied Animal Behaviour Science, vol. 273, 106219. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2024.106219

A critical note on meal criteria in pigs: Which behaviours do they perform during feeder visit intervals? / Bus, Jacinta D.; Boumans, Iris J.M.M.; Webb, Laura E. et al.
In: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, Vol. 273, 106219, 04.2024.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - A critical note on meal criteria in pigs

T2 - Which behaviours do they perform during feeder visit intervals?

AU - Bus, Jacinta D.

AU - Boumans, Iris J.M.M.

AU - Webb, Laura E.

AU - Bokkers, Eddie A.M.

PY - 2024/4

Y1 - 2024/4

N2 - The feeding behaviour of pigs can be continuously recorded using sensors, providing promising avenues for automatic monitoring of pig performance and welfare. To utilise this potential, however, the data must be cleaned and aggregated meaningfully. A common aggregation is from visits into meals, in which visits separated by intervals shorter than a meal criterion (s or min) are merged. Methods to determine the criterion and the criteria themselves vary widely between studies, and have been applied indiscriminately or only when no pen mates visited the feeder during the interval. Aggregation choices should be biologically relevant, but there is no empirical knowledge on how pigs behave during these intervals or how the intervals are influenced by feeder competition. This study had three aims: 1) test the method that classifies intervals using a three-part probability density function (short, intermediate and long intervals); 2) determine whether feeder competition differed between interval types and application methods; and 3) describe and compare the behaviours of pigs between intervals. Visit intervals were obtained from 110 barrows in ten pens with one IVOGⓇ electronic feeding station each. A three-part probability density function was fitted to the log-transformed intervals, and its fit was assessed visually. For each pig, a short and an intermediate interval were selected for behavioural observations from camera. We found that pigs had relatively more intermediate intervals (1–28 min) than cows and that the fit of the three-part function was suboptimal. Nevertheless, identified meal criteria were in similar ranges as for other species. Intermediate intervals were more often initiated by displacements than short intervals (≤1 min), and there was more aggression and less pen exploration if pen mates visited the feeder during these intervals. Short intervals reflected interruptions in feeding behaviour, shown by standing (e.g. vigilance/chewing outside the feeder) and pen exploration (e.g. rooting, searching for pellets), while intermediate intervals contained non-feeding behaviours, such as social nosing, drinking and, predominantly, lying inactive. We conclude that intermediate intervals indicated completed feeding bouts, while short intervals reflected continued feeding-focused behaviours. Therefore, only visits separated by short intervals should be merged into meals. The exact criterion depends on the dataset but may, considering the suboptimal fit of the function, be more precisely determined using other methods. Whether visits should be merged indiscriminately or only when no pen mates entered the EFS during the interval depends on whether competition effects are of interest in the study.

AB - The feeding behaviour of pigs can be continuously recorded using sensors, providing promising avenues for automatic monitoring of pig performance and welfare. To utilise this potential, however, the data must be cleaned and aggregated meaningfully. A common aggregation is from visits into meals, in which visits separated by intervals shorter than a meal criterion (s or min) are merged. Methods to determine the criterion and the criteria themselves vary widely between studies, and have been applied indiscriminately or only when no pen mates visited the feeder during the interval. Aggregation choices should be biologically relevant, but there is no empirical knowledge on how pigs behave during these intervals or how the intervals are influenced by feeder competition. This study had three aims: 1) test the method that classifies intervals using a three-part probability density function (short, intermediate and long intervals); 2) determine whether feeder competition differed between interval types and application methods; and 3) describe and compare the behaviours of pigs between intervals. Visit intervals were obtained from 110 barrows in ten pens with one IVOGⓇ electronic feeding station each. A three-part probability density function was fitted to the log-transformed intervals, and its fit was assessed visually. For each pig, a short and an intermediate interval were selected for behavioural observations from camera. We found that pigs had relatively more intermediate intervals (1–28 min) than cows and that the fit of the three-part function was suboptimal. Nevertheless, identified meal criteria were in similar ranges as for other species. Intermediate intervals were more often initiated by displacements than short intervals (≤1 min), and there was more aggression and less pen exploration if pen mates visited the feeder during these intervals. Short intervals reflected interruptions in feeding behaviour, shown by standing (e.g. vigilance/chewing outside the feeder) and pen exploration (e.g. rooting, searching for pellets), while intermediate intervals contained non-feeding behaviours, such as social nosing, drinking and, predominantly, lying inactive. We conclude that intermediate intervals indicated completed feeding bouts, while short intervals reflected continued feeding-focused behaviours. Therefore, only visits separated by short intervals should be merged into meals. The exact criterion depends on the dataset but may, considering the suboptimal fit of the function, be more precisely determined using other methods. Whether visits should be merged indiscriminately or only when no pen mates entered the EFS during the interval depends on whether competition effects are of interest in the study.

KW - Fattening pigs

KW - Feeder competition

KW - Feeding behaviour

KW - Feeding patterns

KW - Precision livestock farming (PLF)

KW - Sensor data processing

U2 - 10.1016/j.applanim.2024.106219

DO - 10.1016/j.applanim.2024.106219

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85188016846

SN - 0168-1591

VL - 273

JO - Applied Animal Behaviour Science

JF - Applied Animal Behaviour Science

M1 - 106219

ER -

Bus JD, Boumans IJMM, Webb LE, Bokkers EAM. A critical note on meal criteria in pigs: Which behaviours do they perform during feeder visit intervals? Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 2024 Apr;273:106219. doi: 10.1016/j.applanim.2024.106219

A critical note on meal criteria in pigs: Which behaviours do they perform during feeder visit intervals? (2024)

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